Half-Breed Tract [RG0726.AM]


RG0726.AM:  Half-Breed Tract (Nemaha and Richardson Counties, Neb.)

Records and correspondence:  1830-1943, mostly 1934-1943
Nemaha and Richardson Counties, Neb.:  Indian reservation
Size:  0.5 cu.ft.; 1 box


On July 15, 1830, at Prarie du Chien in Michigan Territory, the United States concluded a treaty with several Indian tribes including the Oto and Missouri. Article ten of this treaty provided for the establishment of the Nemaha Half-Breed Reservation, which extended from the Missouri River westward between the Great Nemaha and Little Nemaha Rivers, and comprised some 138,000 acres in what is now southeastern Nebraska. It was set aside for the half-breeds of the Oto, Missouri, Iowa, and Omaha tribes, and the Santee and Yankton Sioux. The half-breed reservation included portions of present day Nemaha and Richardson counties.

Congress, by an act of July 1, 1854, authorized the President to cause the reserve to be surveyed and allotted to persons so entitled. By 1860, the claims had been reviewed, and on September 10 of that year, 389 patents were issued for a total of 122,240 acres. The half-breeds had no obligation to live on their lands, and many soon sold them, often for less than they were worth. By 1870, very few half-breeds still remained on their allotted land.


This collection consists of material arranged in four series: 1) Correspondence, 1857-1943; 2) Manuscripts; 3) Printed Matter; and 4) Maps.

This material relates to the selection and allotment of lands for the half-breeds of the Oto, Missouri, and other tribes from the reserve known as the Half-Breed Tract. Included in the collection are descriptions of these allotments and a list of half-breeds and mixed breeds of the various tribes and maps of the Half-Breed Land. The bulk of the correspondence and manuscript material relates to research on the history of the Half-Breed Tract by C. O. Snow of Auburn, Nebraska.


Series 1 - Correspondence, 1857-1943

Box 1

  1. 1857 (Photostats of letters from the Office of Commissioner of Indian Affairs); 1876
  2. 1934-1935
  3. 1942-1943

Series 2 - Manuscripts

  1. Description of the selections and allotments of half-breeds, including a list of half-breeds and mixed bloods
  2. Manuscript materials relating to the "History of Half-Breed Tract" by C.O. Snow, published in Nebraska History, 16:36-48, 1935

Series 3 - Printed Matter

  1. Photostat of the Treaty of Prarie du Chien, 1830
  2. Photostat of the original patent granting land to Lewis Neal, 1860

Series 4 - Maps

  1. Xerox copies of maps of Half-Breed Tract and adjacent land, 1860 (additional oversized maps shelved in the Newspaper Room map case, under M classification number)
  2. Plat of Half-Breed Land surveyed under instructions from Isaac McCoy in 1837-1838. J.C. McCoy Surveyor.

Series 5 - Miscellany

  1. Louis Neal's file



Half-Breed Tract (Nemaha and Richardson Counties, Neb.)
Indians -- Government relations
Indians -- History
Indians -- Land
Indians -- Nebraska
Indians -- Reservations
Indians -- Treaties
Missouri Indians
Nemaha County (Neb.) -- History
Oto Indians
Richardson County (Neb.) -- History
Snow, Charles Otis, 1858-


Revised 03-31-2009   TMM

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